Monday, August 11, 2014

Watch European History Being Forged For Schools

The biography of John Foxe (1516 – 1587) the writer of Marterology shows an example where a rebillious iconoclast leader who fought against a spread of the idolatry practices of catholic church to save his ancestral monotheistic Islamic faith. He had to flee, watch people persecuted. However he is now depicted as a supporter of popery and a catholic trinitarian from the beginning. His Book that was burnt during his times was later forged and now states his belief in Christ, Bible and Kings and Queens as divinely ordained.
While the facts of his real motivation and beliefs, which indicate their disgust for Catholic Christianity,  are still evident from surviving records of the European Iconoclastic movement he was a leading figure:
In Basel in 1529 crucifix was dragged to the market, where a crowd mocked it with the words ' If you are God, then save yourself'"
p 132 , The Reformation of the Image, Joseph Leo Koerner, Reaktion Books, Feb 27, 2004

Early English books because of heavy forged material are a puzzling confused mix of the strands of the original work and new forged stories.

Friday, August 9, 2013

Forgeries in Historical Literature

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The Historicity and Origin of Modern Day Religious Texts

Points Worth Remembering
After overtaking their local Arab kingdoms, the south West European kingdoms started invading other parts of the world ushering a colonial era during the sixteenth century. In the eyes of the people subjected to the colonialism along with the gunboats, opium, slaves and treaties, the Gospels and Bible became a defining symbol of European expansion during the seventeenth century. The history of the post colonial days provides narratives of the arrival of the West European Judeo Christian literature as we currently know it, in all other parts of the world. 

Colonials almost always came across Muslims actively reading, learning Quran and using its interpretations for their governance as ruling classes at most parts of the world.

There has been a great interest to trace pre-colonial forms of Christianity in those Asian and African lands. A religious symbol that appears similar to the Christian cross, having four stems joined together, was in use. However its four stems were all with the same length like flower or symbol for shining sun. The symbol had religious significance however there is no evidence that these pre-colonial faiths of those lands had any story of crucifixion of anybody. No crucifixes, symbols of a man dying on cross ever found. The oral stories, literature, inscriptions, and beliefs of the pre-colonial religions ,other than Islam , existing in India, China, South Asia and Japan had no relationship with the modern Gospels or Bible. "the cross was an old Roman sign of victory and has nothing to do with the crucifix." page 274, The Rise of Christendom, By Edwin Johnson

While British were demolishing Muslim empires and kingdoms in India the colonial missionaries began translating Gospel in Indian languages in as late times as 1820s. So there is no question of Indians being aware of Gospels before colonization. Indian encounter with Portuguese colonialist fleets a little earlier remained too marginal and short.

"As Calcutta became flush with schools, colleges, and universities, pundits from around Bengal and across India were drawn there in search of employment. Some were recruited by the early orientalists. Under Wilson alone, pundits from as far afield as Gujarat and Banaras found positions at the Calcutta Government Sanskrit College.2 Other pundits found work with the missionaries, assisting them in their quest to master India's many languages so as to propagate the Gospel."
p-580, Sanskrit Pandits Recall Their Youth: Two Autobiographies from Nineteenth-Century BengalAuthor(s): Brian A. HatcherSource: Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 121, No. 4 (Oct. - Dec., 2001), pp. 580-592

Before Muslim Arab kingdoms of  south western Europe  including those in Sicily to Spain and Portugal started to weaken and fall Islam and Quran had already established in the practice and minds of public all over Europe.

Islamic Foundations of European Civilization

Islam arrived in the area now called Europe long before the well known Muslim caliphates and imaarat and kingdoms of Sicily and Spain. After it reached at the dominant status that the most advanced areas of Sicily and Spain came under its rule there seemed nothing to compete with it in whole of Euprope. Only close to its decline Arab-Christian and Arab Jewish communities, which were strictly confined in the Europe's central Muslim areas, appear in growing distinction. Before the Muslim Arab kingdoms of  south western Europe  including those in Sicily to Spain started to weaken and fall Islam had centuries to impact. Thus e.g. Qur'an was already well known in all over Europe before any signs of weakening of Muslim rule appeared. In this period when the Modern Bibles and Christian Testaments were being introduced the quotes of Qur'anic stories was used in them to convince people of their authenticity because these were being seen as a new curiosity.

During those times in the wake of the first eastern crusades Modern Jewish and Trinitarian Christian religions as we know them today were coming on scene and were being introduced to Europeans. Qur'anic interpretations became a vehicle for communicating these new religious denominations to help them relate with the known past literature. As the available literature in the scolarly world was all that of Muslims from the preceding centuries. Modern Jewish and Trinitarian Christian were presented to Europeans as descendants of  some of the pre-Islamic religions  People of the book, existing in the sixth century Madina contemporary to the time of prophet Mohammad which are mentioned in the Qur'an,  There were people in Europe who objected to this similitude claimd otherwise and voiced their opposition to such similitudes:

"A further wilful blunder consisted in the rendering
of the phrase " People of the Book " in the Koran by
"Jews and Christians." The only people who can
furnish us with an account of the origin of the term
Jehudim are the doctors of the Synagogue ; and
certainly they have nothing to tell us concerning
Yahood at Medina in the time of the rise of Islam.

* Fabricius, Bibl. Med. et Inf. Lat.y x. 660. The dale is proleptic,
probably by at least two centuries.


The only class of men who can historically explain the
term Christiani is the great Basilian and Benedictine
confederacy. The word is their own coinage. The
Koran knows nothing of Christiani. A fresh and
exact rendering of the book is sorely needed in the
interests of literary science.

When we come to the Koran with minds disabused
of the Mediaeval dishonesty, we find that the book is
nothing less than the original Bible, i.e., the source
of those legends of Origins which have been retold
by the Eabbins in Bible and Talmud. It is also the
source of the Catholic legend of Mary, mother of
Jesus, or, in their altered version, Mary, mother of
God. As this subject is so utterly misunderstood, we
subjoin a brief outline of the oracles of the Koran
and the connected Chronicle.

Pages 134-136 , Chapter THE TRADITIONS OF THE MOSQUE, in  THE RISE OF CHRISTENDOM, EDWIN JOHNSON, M.A. , Professor of Classical Literature in New College, S. Hampstead

see the link for the Origin of Christianity especially The Rise of Christendom- Summary and Conclusions 

During and after the sixth century the image of the Quran as a rationally reconcilable coherent and convincing text was not merely confined to Muslims but was attested by the topmost Jewish scholars of that time as well including Saadia Gaon, Born 882, head of major rabbinic schools in Baghdad. Some parts of his  work Tafsir  survived. One of the surviving manuscripts is in British Museum London.  There are reasons to believe that it was actually Tafsir of the Qur'an for its  Jewish community interpretation. At his time Qur'an was the major subject in the public/common education and source for state, political , community, social and individual norms, initiatives and objectives. A need for its jewish interpretation that can face this situation to save the integrity of Jewish community from dis integrating and dissolving in the Islamic world was vital.  A recently published modern study, quored below, of Gaon's Torah tafsir precisely concludes a related fact that the erudite topmost Jewish scholar Gaon prefers version of Qur'an without hesitation over his rabbinic literature including Torah.

 You will note in the quote below that the modern investigator, of the more than thousand year old work, openly claims to be more knowledgeable about the facts of the thousand year old time. Without considering any need to justify a claim to be know all the modern scholar blames the more than thousand year old scholar of timidity of accepting Islamic version without raising any question, dishonesty or inability or both by accusing him of mistranslation in producing that work.

"Saadiah Gaon's influential translation of the Torah into Arabic has long been known to contain countless "mistranslations,"passages in which Saa-diah consciously modifies the biblical text to conform to Arabic literary style or to his own beliefs and understanding of the Bible. Several of the modifications found in Saadiah's Tafsir derive from Islamic sources, including Islamic terminology and phraseology, Islamic law and tradition, and the Qur'an itself This paper examines those passages in the Tafsir of the Torah which reflect Islamic influence in an attempt to understand how, in a work written for a Jewish audience, Saadiah utilizes material gleaned from the dominant religion of his day and why on several occasions the gaon prefers Islamic interpretations over the existing rabbinic and biblical alternatives. "
The Use of Islamic Sources in Saadiah Gaon's "Tafsīr" of the Torah
Author(s): David M. Freidenreich
Source: The Jewish Quarterly Review, New Series, Vol. 93, No. 3/4 (Jan. - Apr., 2003), pp. 353
Published by: University of Pennsylvania Press
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It is clear that the modern author, David M. Freidenreich, out rightly rejects any need for examining to find out what version of Torah text had been in front of Gaon during the translation. David M. Freidenreich believes without evaluation that the text version in front of Gaon was definitely the same as his own modern version.

It is important to examine the assumption that Gaon was translating Torah from Hebrew to Arabic and not from Arabic to Hebrew. It is interesting that the existing manuscript in British Museum that the above author reviewed is in Arabic language but Hebrew alphabets. It is transliterated work from Arabic original by substituting Hebrew letters for Arabic letters.  So the work is an evidence that an Arabic Torah was pre-existent and was the foundation of the manuscript of the Jewish Rabbi Saadia Gaon(Born 882). The other natural question is why will one produce some Arabic language text in Hebrew letters? It could be Hebrew in developing stages. First Hebrew literature appearing as transliteration of Arabic texts before the Hebrew language, for instance the language of a Jewish community in Baghdad, reached a status of viable written language as we know it today.


"The Rise of Christendom by Mr Edwin Johnson is in every respect a remarkable book and we sincerely hope it will meet with the attention that it deserves from scholars and historians who are qualified to judge of the theory the author propounds with so much learning and eloquence To merely state the proposition which the writer so forcibly enunciates and which is supported by a portentous array of illustrative facts might lead our readers to suppose that this was merely the work of some eccentric scholar whose prepossessions had carried him beyond the bounds of what is reasonable Let us hasten to assure them they need have no such fear The work is perfectly sane and the writer's convictions have been produced by a careful and earnest study of facts which have been hitherto too much disregarded Mr Johnson's theory is that the story of the rise of the Holy Roman Church on the ruins of the Roman Empire which we have all been accustomed to believe and which Gibbon has so splendidly related is no more than a massive Church legend fabricated in the first place by the Basilian and Benedictine monks It must be postulated that we have no other authority than the Church for the story of its own triumph and the authority is tainted at the source To use Mr Johnson's own favourite expression this is a massive allegation but he supports it by a mass of evidence it is difficult to reject If we ask how it was that even Gibbon was deceived he tells us that it was because the sceptical historian of the decline and fall never went behind his authorities but accepted their own account of the origin of the Church Our first impression would be to say that the thing is impossible that such a gigantic fraud could never have imposed upon the world even if it could have been perpetrated As to the possibility of its perpetration Mr Johnson aptly quotes the late Cardinal Newman who refers in the Grammar of Assent to the supposition of Father Hardouin that most of our Latin classics were forgeries 0f the monks of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries Father Hardouin's discovery of wholesale Benedictine frauds appeared to have filled his mind with universal suspicion towards the Latin  literature But the Cardinal in discussing the opinion pertinently observes that all our knowledge of the Latin classics comes to us from the mediseval copies of them and they who transcribed them had the opportunity of forging or garbling them We are simply at their mercy the existing copies whenever made are to us the autographic originals The numerous religious bodies then existing over the face of Europe had leisure enough in the course of a century to compose not only all the classics but all the Fathers too This led Mr Johnson to consult the works of Father Hardouin and to his surprise he found that he had been anticipated by some two hundred years Hardouin denounces the ecclesiastical histories and the Fathers and councils as a system of fable He reveals to us the forgers sitting down in their scriptom a with sixth seventh eighth ninth or tenth century ink and parchments and with corresponding alphabet to write works in the names of imaginary authors Mr Johnson believes that Hardouin's arguments in reference to the late origin of Patristic literature cannot be refuted and that they prove that the Church is a purely medizeval institution As a literary test of this part of his hypothesis Mr Johnson suggests the following to the serious student Let him take up the ecclesiastical history ascribed to Nicephorus Callistus and said to have been written in the fourteenth century Let him compare it with the first ecclesiastical history ascribed to Eusebius Pamphili he will convince himself of the absurdity of supposing that an interval of one thousand years elapsed between the two productions They were written very nearly at the same time and they represent the first effort at making out a Church theory of the past Let the student then ascertain what Dante Petrarch and Boccaccio knew of the origin of the Church In general terms Mr Johnson looks upon the twelfth century as the cradle period of the Church The first successors to the Roman Empire along the shores of the Mediterranean were the Saracens the Mosque preceded the Church but the Synagogue intervened It was with the Moslems that Oriental religion came into Europe they were succeeded by the Rabbins and they finally by the monks The Roman Empire from its rise to its decline from the time of Augustus to that of Heraclius was entirely unconscious of any such revolution in religious affairs as was implied by the introduction of Christianity In support of his argument then literary evidence being invalidated our author reviews the evidence from the inscriptions coins feasts Roman laws and architecture This is followed by glimpses of mediseval Rome and Italy the traditions of the Mosque the rise of Hebrew literature early forms of the Christian legend &c The last chapter investigates a number of interpolations in the literature of the Roman Empire We have but slightly indicated the importance and interest of this work we have to pass by what must interest Biblical scholars who care nothing about the Church and that is the account of the rise of Hebrew literature in Spain which gives a new complexion to critical questions about the Old Testament Mr Johnson may in some particulars be inclined to carry his theory too far but that ecclesiastical history is a mass of exaggerations and legends he leaves us little room to doubt  "
The Westminster Review, Volume 134 Front Cover Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1890

Jewish Love and Appreciation of the Qur'an

"no less remarkable is the fact that the most spectacular of the four surviving synagogues of Spain is decorated with something in and itself the real thing but in a context that is, to say the least, unexpected:the Toledan synagogues now called El-Trasito, built in 1360 in resplendent echoes of the Alhambra, just then being finished, includes real Arabic along with Hebrew, integrated into the complex stucco ornamentation. And not just any Arabic, nor even some bits of the considerable body of Jewish writing done in Arabic in al-Andalus, but lines from the Qur'an itself "
The Literature of Al-Andalus by María Rosa Menocal, Cambridge University Press, Nov 2, 2006, page 10

Quran attests emphatically and repeatedly that some archaic Torah, Arabs inherited from their previous generations and was seemingly much different from the current modern versions,  was commonly available in Arabia in the sixth century.

Prophet SAW challenged Jews of Madina and across to bring their Torah manuscripts before the people of the town so that they can read and confirm the statements of the Prophet. People of Madina were Arabs proud of their Arabic language and in fact despised all other languages.

فَوَيْلٌ لِّلَّذِينَ يَكْتُبُونَ الْكِتَابَ بِأَيْدِيهِمْ ثُمَّ يَقُولُونَ هَـٰذَا مِنْ عِندِ اللَّـهِ لِيَشْتَرُوا بِهِ ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا ۖ فَوَيْلٌ لَّهُم مِّمَّا كَتَبَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَوَيْلٌ لَّهُم مِّمَّا يَكْسِبُونَ ﴿٧٩
So woe to those who write the "scripture" with their own hands, then say, "This is from Allah," in order to exchange it for a small price. Woe to them for what their hands have written and woe to them for what they earn. (79)  Al-Baqara

 آل عمران

إِنَّ مِنْهُمْ لَفَرِيقًا يَلْوُونَ أَلْسِنَتَهُم بِالْكِتَابِ لِتَحْسَبُوهُ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَمَا هُوَ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَيَقُولُونَ هُوَ مِنْ عِندِ اللَّـهِ وَمَا هُوَ مِنْ عِندِ اللَّـهِ وَيَقُولُونَ عَلَى اللَّـهِ الْكَذِبَ وَهُمْ يَعْلَمُونَ ﴿٧٨﴾

And there is a sect of them twist their tongues with the Book, that you may suppose it part of the Book, yet it is not part of the Book; and they say, 'It is from God,' yet it is not from God, and they speak falsehood against God, and that wittingly. (78) Chapter 3 - Aal Imran
 آل عمران
قُلْ فَأْتُوا بِالتَّوْرَاةِ فَاتْلُوهَا إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ ﴿٩٣فَمَنِ افْتَرَىٰ عَلَى اللَّـهِ الْكَذِبَ مِن بَعْدِ ذَٰلِكَ فَأُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ ﴿٩٤